2020.04 Cancer Cell 各样的工具用于肿瘤治疗为癌症治疗描绘一个更光明的未来

长风大侠 2020-04-17 15:08:42 阅读: 104



1.     获得性抵抗免疫检查点抑制剂

Acquired Resistance to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

2.     用单细胞基因组学推进癌症研究和医学

Advancing Cancer Research and Medicine with Single-Cell Genomics

3.     肿瘤内异质性:治疗抵抗的罗塞塔石

Intratumor Heterogeneity: The Rosetta Stone of Therapy Resistance

4.     基于液体活检的治疗反应和耐药生物标志物

Liquid Biopsy-Based Biomarkers of Treatment Response and Resistance

5.     克服乳腺癌内分泌抵抗

Overcoming Endocrine Resistance in Breast Cancer

6.     CDK4/6抑制的敏感性和抗性机制

Mechanisms of Sensitivity and Resistance to CDK4/6 Inhibition

7.     对BCR-ABL1靶向治疗的反应和耐药性

Response and Resistance to BCR-ABL1-Targeted Therapies

8.     在KRAS驱动的肿瘤中靶向MAPK通路

Targeting the MAPK Pathway in KRAS-Driven Tumors

9.     弥漫性大B细胞淋巴瘤遗传亚型的概率分类工具及其治疗意义

A Probabilistic Classification Tool for Genetic Subtypes of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma with Therapeutic Implications

10.  1000例儿童低级别胶质瘤的分子与临床综合分析

Integrated Molecular and Clinical Analysis of 1,000 Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas

11.  CHD1的丢失通过染色质失调促进对AR靶向治疗耐药的异质性机制

Loss of CHD1 Promotes Heterogeneous Mechanisms of Resistance to AR-Targeted Therapy via Chromatin Dysregulation

12.  KMT2D缺乏会损害超级增强子,从而导致肺癌的糖酵解脆弱性

KMT2D Deficiency Impairs Super-Enhancers to Confer a Glycolytic Vulnerability in Lung Cancer



1. 获得性抵抗免疫检查点抑制剂




Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have rapidly altered the treatment landscape for multiple tumor types, providing unprecedented survival in some patients. Despite the characteristic durability of response to ICI, unfortunately many patients with initial response will later develop acquired resistance. The current understanding of mechanisms of acquired resistance to ICIs is remarkably limited, perhaps restraining effective development of next-generation immunotherapies. Here, we examine the barriers to progress and emerging clinical reports interrogating acquired resistance with the goal to facilitate efforts to overcome acquired resistance to ICIs in the future.



2. 用单细胞基因组学推进癌症研究和医学




Single-cell sequencing (SCS) has impacted many areas of cancer research and improved our understanding of intratumor heterogeneity, the tumor microenvironment, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. The development and refinement of SCS technologies has led to massive reductions in costs, increased cell throughput, and improved reproducibility, paving the way for clinical applications. However, before translational applications can be realized, there are a number of logistical and technical challenges that must be overcome. This review discusses past cancer research studies, emerging technologies, and future clinical applications that are bound to transform cancer medicine.


3. 肿瘤内异质性:治疗抵抗的罗塞塔石




Advances in our understanding of molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis have translated into knowledge-based therapies directed against specific oncogenic signaling targets. These therapies often induce dramatic responses in susceptible tumors. Unfortunately, most advanced cancers, including those with robust initial responses, eventually acquire resistance to targeted therapies and relapse. Even though immune-based therapies are more likely to achieve complete cures, acquired resistance remains an obstacle to their success as well. Acquired resistance is the direct consequence of pre-existing intratumor heterogeneity and ongoing diversification during therapy, which enables some tumor cells to survive treatment and facilitates the development of new therapy-resistant phenotypes. In this review, we discuss the sources of intratumor heterogeneity and approaches to capture and account for it during clinical decision making. Finally, we outline potential strategies to improve therapeutic outcomes by directly targeting intratumor heterogeneity.


4.  基于液体活检的治疗反应和耐药生物标志物




Predictive biomarkers aid selection of personalized therapy targeted to molecular alterations within an individual's tumor. Patients' responses to targeted therapies are commonly followed by treatment resistance. Here, we survey liquid biopsies as alternatives to tumor biopsies to assess predictive and therapy response biomarkers. We examine the potential of liquid biopsies to meet the challenges of minimal residual disease monitoring after curative intent treatment for earlier detection of disease recurrence. We focus on blood, the most commonly collected minimally invasive clinical sample, and on the two most widely studied assays, circulating tumor DNA and circulating tumor cells.


5. 克服乳腺癌内分泌抵抗




Estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer is the most common breast cancer subtype. Treatment of ER+ breast cancer comprises interventions that suppress estrogen production and/or target the ER directly (overall labeled as endocrine therapy). While endocrine therapy has considerably reduced recurrence and mortality from breast cancer, de novo and acquired resistance to this treatment remains a major challenge. An increasing number of mechanisms of endocrine resistance have been reported, including somatic alterations, epigenetic changes, and changes in the tumor microenvironment. Here, we review recent advances in delineating mechanisms of resistance to endocrine therapies and potential strategies to overcome such resistance.


6. CDK4/6抑制的敏感性和抗性机制




Inhibiting the cell-cycle kinases CDK4 and CDK6 results in significant therapeutic effect in patients with advanced hormone-positive breast cancer. The efficacy of this strategy is, however, limited by innate or acquired resistance mechanisms and its application to other tumor types is still uncertain. Here, through an integrative analysis of sensitivity and resistance mechanisms, we discuss the use of CDK4/6 inhibitors in combination with available targeted therapies, immunotherapy, or classical chemotherapy with the aim of improving future therapeutic uses of CDK4/6 inhibition in a variety of cancers.


7. 对BCR-ABL1靶向治疗的反应和耐药性




Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), caused by constitutively active BCR-ABL1 fusion tyrosine kinase, has served as a paradigm for successful application of molecularly targeted cancer therapy. The development of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib allows patients with CML to experience near-normal life expectancy. Specific point mutations that decrease drug binding affinity can produce TKI resistance, and second- and third-generation TKIs largely mitigate this problem. Some patients develop TKI resistance without known resistance mutations, with significant heterogeneity in the underlying mechanism, but this is relatively uncommon, with the majority of patients with chronic phase CML achieving long-term disease control. In contrast, responses to TKI treatment are short lived in advanced phases of the disease or in BCR-ABL1-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, with relapse driven by both BCR-ABL1 kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Additionally, the frontline CML treatment with second-generation TKIs produces deeper molecular responses, driving disease burden below the detection limit for a greater number of patients. For patients with deep molecular responses, up to half have been able to discontinue therapy. Current efforts are focused on identifying therapeutic strategies to drive deeper molecular responses, enabling more patients to attempt TKI discontinuation.


8. 在KRAS驱动的肿瘤中靶向MAPK通路




KRAS mutations occur in a quarter of all of human cancers, yet no selective drug has been approved to treat these tumors. Despite the recent development of drugs that block KRASG12C, the majority of KRAS oncoproteins remain undruggable. Here, we review recent efforts to validate individual components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway as targets to treat KRAS-mutant cancers by comparing genetic information derived from experimental mouse models of KRAS-driven lung and pancreatic tumors with the outcome of selective MAPK inhibitors in clinical trials. We also review the potential of RAF1 as a key target to block KRAS-mutant cancers.



9. 弥漫性大B细胞淋巴瘤遗传亚型的概率分类工具及其治疗意义




The development of precision medicine approaches for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is confounded by its pronounced genetic, phenotypic, and clinical heterogeneity. Recent multiplatform genomic studies revealed the existence of genetic subtypes of DLBCL using clustering methodologies. Here, we describe an algorithm that determines the probability that a patient's lymphoma belongs to one of seven genetic subtypes based on its genetic features. This classification reveals genetic similarities between these DLBCL subtypes and various indolent and extranodal lymphoma types, suggesting a shared pathogenesis. These genetic subtypes also have distinct gene expression profiles, immune microenvironments, and outcomes following immunochemotherapy. Functional analysis of genetic subtype models highlights distinct vulnerabilities to targeted therapy, supporting the use of this classification in precision medicine trials.


10. 1000例儿童低级别胶质瘤的分子与临床综合分析




Pediatric low-grade gliomas (pLGG) are frequently driven by genetic alterations in the RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase (RAS/MAPK) pathway yet show unexplained variability in their clinical outcome. To address this, we characterized a cohort of >1,000 clinically annotated pLGG. Eighty-four percent of cases harbored a driver alteration, while those without an identified alteration also often exhibited upregulation of the RAS/MAPK pathway. pLGG could be broadly classified based on their alteration type. Rearrangement-driven tumors were diagnosed at a younger age, enriched for WHO grade I histology, infrequently progressed, and rarely resulted in death as compared with SNV-driven tumors. Further sub-classification of clinical-molecular correlates stratified pLGG into risk categories. These data highlight the biological and clinical differences between pLGG subtypes and opens avenues for future treatment refinement.


11. CHD1的丢失通过染色质失调促进对AR靶向治疗耐药的异质性机制




Metastatic prostate cancer is characterized by recurrent genomic copy number alterations that are presumed to contribute to resistance to hormone therapy. We identified CHD1 loss as a cause of antiandrogen resistance in an in vivo small hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen of 730 genes deleted in prostate cancer. ATAC-seq and RNA-seq analyses showed that CHD1 loss resulted in global changes in open and closed chromatin with associated transcriptomic changes. Integrative analysis of this data, together with CRISPR-based functional screening, identified four transcription factors (NR3C1, POU3F2, NR2F1, and TBX2) that contribute to antiandrogen resistance, with associated activation of non-luminal lineage programs. Thus, CHD1loss results in chromatin dysregulation, thereby establishing a state of transcriptional plasticity that enables the emergence of antiandrogen resistance through heterogeneous mechanisms.


12. KMT2D缺乏会损害超级增强子,从而导致肺癌的糖酵解脆弱性




Epigenetic modifiers frequently harbor loss-of-function mutations in lung cancer, but their tumor-suppressive roles are poorly characterized. Histone methyltransferase KMT2D (a COMPASS-like enzyme, also called MLL4) is among the most highly inactivated epigenetic modifiers in lung cancer. Here, we show that lung-specific loss of Kmt2d promotes lung tumorigenesis in mice and upregulates pro-tumorigenic programs, including glycolysis. Pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis preferentially impedes tumorigenicity of human lung cancer cells bearing KMT2D-inactivating mutations. Mechanistically, Kmt2d loss widely impairs epigenomic signals for super-enhancers/enhancers, including the super-enhancer for the circadian rhythm repressor Per2. Loss of Kmt2d decreases expression of PER2, which regulates multiple glycolytic genes. These findings indicate that KMT2D is a lung tumor suppressor and that KMT2D deficiency confers a therapeutic vulnerability to glycolytic inhibitors.

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